“Powerhouse of Cell” Mitochondrion

Hi friends, Today I am going to give information about Powerhouses of cell Mitochondriaon.


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  • Mitochondrion is a essential components of nearly all cells in the body.
  • This mitochondrion are the powerhouses for cells, providing energy to carry out biochemical reactions and other cellular processes.
  • These organelles /Mitochondrion make a energy for cells from the chemical energy stored in the food we eat.

Structure of Mitochondrion

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  • The mitochondrion are double membrane bound cell organelles.
  • Outer membrane is smooth and tightly stretched, while inner membrane criastae.
  • The mitochondrion is a round to oval-shaped organelle .
  • It is afound in the cells of almost all eukaryotic organisms.
  • It is the produces energy, it known as ATP, for the cell through a series of chemical reactions.
  • This mitochondrias are semi -autonomous cell organelles as well as self duplicating organelle.

Generation of mitochondrion

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  • Mitochondrion is are the only organelles in the cell which contain their own DNA, and their own protein making machinery.
  • Mosstly in multi-cellular organisms use today (aerobic respiration, using oxygen). Under aerobic condition, in the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere, pyruvate is completely oxidized to form CO2, H2O and large amount of energy is generated.

Inside membrane in the Mitochondrion

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  • The mitochondrion were once free living organisms on their own that used aerobic respiration.
  • In which the mitochondrion the 5 proteins from the chain on the inner mitochondrial membrane is known as the respiratory chain.
  • That is the transfer the energy along these 5 proteins until it becomes ATP.

Powerhouses of mitochondrion

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  • Mitochondria is called as a “powerhouses of the cell,” mitochondria.
  • It is produce the energy necessary for the cell’s survival and functioning.
  • Through a series of chemical reactions, mitochondria break down glucose into an energy molecule it known as the adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is used to fuel various other cellular processes.
  • In which that addition to producing energy, mitochondria store calcium for cell signaling, generate heat, and are involved in cell growth and death etc.

Energy made in mitochondrion

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  • Our food contains the macromolecules namely carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
  • These energy stored in the molecular bonds of these molecules is converted into a usable energy source in the body is known as ATP.
  • ATP is the only energy currency that can be used in the our bodies.
  • Similar to that in macromolecules, there are many sources of energy including hydro, wind, nuclear etc.
  • The energy sources are different .Energy in our homes is always converted to electricity to power various devices, similar to how only ATP in our cells is used to carry out cellular functions.
  • The production of ATP is a complex process
  • The inner membrane of the mitochondrion is responsible for mass energy production.

The Mitochondrion Found In

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  • Mitochondrias are located in the cytoplasm of cells along with other organelles of the cell.
  • with the exception of a few. There are usually multiple , depending upon the function of that type of cell the mitochondria are found in one cell.
  • Mitochondria are found in the cells in Animals imals, Plants , Eukaryotic Organism.
  • Cells are contain lot of energy, such as muscle cells, can contain hundreds or thousands of mitochondria. That such type of cell like red blood cells, lack mitochondria entirelyMitochondria post.

So guys, I hope you have understand the concept of Power house of mitochondrion through this information

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Nucleotide In Deoxyribonucleic Acid

Hello friends,

Today I am going to give you information about nucleotide in DNA…


DNA stands for deoxiribo Nucleic Acid. It has acidic properties and is present in the nucleus. Since it contains deoxiribose sugar, it is called Deoxiribonuclecic acid.


Structure of DNA
DNA is a double helical molecule consisting of two long strands which are colide around a common, imagenery, central axis forming double helix.


This structure of DNA was described by Watson and Crick.

  • Nucleotide is the structural unit of the nucleic acid.
  • Deoxiribonucleotides are units in the DNA molecule.

Each Deoxiribonucleotide has three components

  • Pentose Sugar
  • Phosphate Group
  • Nitrogen Base

1)Pentose Sugar

  • In DNA the pentose sugar is called as deoxyribose, and in RNA, the sugar is ribose.The deoxyribose sugar /pentose sugar contains five carbon atoms. .
  • In which the difference between the sugars is the absence on the 2′ carbon of the deoxyribose and its 2′ carbon of the ribose hydroxyl jgroup is present pentose Sugars.
  • The deoxiribose and pentose sugars ribose are part of the nucleotides that make up the crucial nucleic acids like DNA and RNA .
  • Due to its pentose sugars /deoxyribose sugar, in which contains one less oxygen-containing hydroxyl group, DNA is a more stable molecule than RNA, which is useful for a molecule which has the task of keeping genetic information safe.
  • In which RNA, the containing a ribose sugar, is more reactive than DNA and is not stable in alkaline conditions.

2)Phosphate Group


Phosphate Group Definition- It is defined as a When it is attached to a molecule containing carbon, it is called a phosphate group.

  • Pentose sugar is found in the genetic material DNA and RNA, and is also in molecules such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that provide energy to cells. Phosphates can form phospholipids, which make up the cell membrane.
  • Phosphate group is phosphoric acid (H3PO4) having three active -OH groups. Two of these are involved in the strand formation.
  • In which phosphate the other thing about phosphate backbones is the energy for producing the DNA polymer comes from the phosphate itself.
  • When the DNA is synthesized, there is an ATP, an energy molecule, that’s part of the phosphate backbone that is used to link the DNA together.

3)Nitrogen Base

Nitrogenous bases are of two main types:

  • Purines -(Adenine (A) and Guanine (G)), and
  • Pyrimidine– (Cytosine (C) and Thymine (T)).

In a nucleotide, there are two bonds :

  • Glycosidic Bonds – between sugar and nitrogen base
  • Phosphodister Bond- between phosphate and sugar molecule.

Nucleoside- Sugar and nitrogen base together are called nucleoside where as Nucleotide- phosphate added to nucleoside from a nucleotide.

  • There are hydrogen bonds between purines and pyramidines of the opposing DNA strand. Since these bond appears as the rungs of a ladder, hence the DNA molecule looks like a twisted ladder.
  • Purine adenine mostly /always paired with pyramidine thymine, and guanine is mostly /always paired with cytosine. These are known as base pairs.

So guys, I hope you have understood the concept of nucleotide in DNA through this information,

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Switch Mode Power Supply

Hii Friends,

Today we are going to discuss about Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS )

SMPS– is known as Switch mode power supply. SMPS is uses a switching regulator to control and stabilize the output voltage by switching the load current off and on. These power supplies offer the greater power conversion as well as decreases the overall power loss.


The type of power supply switch mode power supply is that uses the semiconductor switching techniques, rather than the standard linear methods to provide the required output voltage. The basic switching converter made /consist of a control circuit and a power switching stage.


A switch mode power supply is an electronic devices /circuit that they convert using power a switching devices that are turned on and off a storage components such as indicators as well as capacitors to supply power when the switching device is in its non condition state and high frequencies.


SMPS is uses in many places in a computer. In the today’s modern computer, there is a SMPS that takes rectified AC input from the wall, preform power factor correction and then converts the output into one or more lower voltage DC outputs.

Switch mode power supply are high efficiency and are widely used in a variety of electronic equipment and
SMPS are have high efficiency and are widely used in including computers as well as other sensitive equipment requiring stable and efficient power supply.


Switched-mode power supplies are classified into according to the type of output and input voltages. The four major categories are:

  • AC to DC
  • DC to DC
  • DC to AC
  • AC to AC

There are different circuit configurations that is topologies, each having unique advantages, charactristis and modes of the operation, which determines how the input is transferred to the output.
The topologies most commonly used as voltage scaling, full bridge and half bridge, push pull, fly back and multiple output voltages.


Advantages of switched-mode power supplies:

  • Efficiency is high -68% to 90%
  • Size is small and lighter
  • Flexible technology
  • Power density is high

Disadvantages of switch mode power supply

  • Circuit design is complex
  • Expensive compared to linear supplies
  • SMPS are used to power a wide variety of equipment such as computers, sensitive electronics, battery-operated devices and other equipment requiring high efficiency.

Application of switch mode power supply (SMPS)

  • SMPS is used in railway system
  • Mobile
  • Battery charger
  • Vehicle
  • Lighting
  • Computer
  • Security system

Specifications of SMPS

  • Multiple output or single Output
  • switching frequency
  • Output power
  • Lode regulations
  • Power efficiency
  • Battery operated

So guys, I hope you have understood the concept of switch mode power supply through this information.

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Greenhouse Effect

Hi friends,
Today we are going to discuss about global warming & green house effect.

Social Issues related to Environment

Social Issues :
 It is defined as, The general factors causes damage and problem of environment is known as social issue.

List Of Social Issues Related To Environment

  • Global warming
  • Green house effect
  • Depletion of Ozone layer
  • Acid rain
  • Deforestation
  • Rapid
  • population growth
  • pollution
  • Depletion of non renewable energy resource
  • Covid _19

Global warming

  • Global warming is the increase in average temperature of the earth near surface air and oceans. Most of the observed temperature increase is caused by increased Concentration of green house gause
  • Major gause
  • water vapor
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Methane
  • Ozone

1)Carbon dioxide
The important part /source of carbon dioxide is the power plants.
For the electricity generation burning of fossil fuels is used
In the atmosphere present twenty percent carbon dioxide ,burning of gasoline in the engines of the vehicles .

20 time more methane is as effectual as CO2 at entrapping heat in the atmosphere
Methane is obtained from resource such as rice paddies, bovine flatulence, bacteria in bogs and fossil fuels manufacture.

3)Nitrous oxide
In nylon and nitric acid the important source is nitrous oxide use production, cars with catalytic converters, the use of fertilizers in agriculture and the burning of organic matter.



  • The effect of global warming is
  • Increasing the average temperature of the earth.
  • In that the ecology, including an increasing sea level and modifying the quantity and pattern of rainfall
  • Boost the occurrence and concentration of severe climate events, such as floods, famines, heat waves, tornado’s, and twisted

Reduce global warming

  • Resuse,Recycle
  • Use Less Heat and Air Conditioning
  • Drive Less and Drive Smart
  • Buy Energy Efficient Products
  • Use less hot water
  • Use the off switch
  • Plant a tree
  • Encourage others to conserve

Green house effect
Meaning :

  • Progressive worming up of the earth surface due to high concentration of man-made carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
  • Concentration of CO2works like a gas panel of greenhouse allowing short waves incoming solar radiation to come in but preventing the long wave heat to retaliated out.
  • The natural outcome is warmer atmosphere :
  • 100 years ago CO2 – 275ppm
  • In the year 2007 – 375ppm
  • In the year 2040 – 450ppm

The major green house gases

  • The gases with the properties of greenhouse are know as green house gases.
  • Some gases in earth’s atmosphere for Eg. Water, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide have a very special property. They do not absorb the visible light from the sun, but they do absorb the infrared light radiated by the Earth surface. These called green house gases.
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Halogen gases like Chlorofluorocarbons
  • Nitrogen oxide
  • Methane

Sources of green house gases

  • Thermal power station based on fossil fuels, mainly coal and mineral oil emitting huge amount of CO2
  • Numerous factories and industrial chimney wastes
  • Automobile
  • Deforestation and burning of fossil fuels.

Effects of Greenhouse Gases

  • Global warming and climate change.
  • Rise of sea level
  • Worsening health effects
  • Disruption of the water cycle
  • Changing forest and natural areas
  • Challenges to agriculture and food supply
  • Effect on the ozone layer
  • Effect on oceanic climate.

Control of Green house

  • Alternate source of energy are to be used
  • Advanced and efficient technologies for reducing emissions from fossil fuels.
  • Afforestation and reforestation on a scale
  • Carbon market

So guys, I hope you have understood the concept of global warming & green house effect through this information.

Share this information with your friends and family.

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Hello friends,

Today we are going to discuss about variates of drugs and their uses, work, availability & dose

Drug is as a chemical substance which is used for the purpose of diagnosis of prevention, cure or relief of disease.



  • Diclofenac is a non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAID).
  • It works by the release of certain chemical messengers that cause pain and inflammation (redness and swelling).


  • headache
  • mild migraine
  • muscle pain
  • Dental pain
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Osteoarthritis


  • Adult _ Apply 1%w/w gel on to affected area 3 to 4 time daily.
  • Instill to eye
  • Post _operative ocular inflammation : Adults as sodium (1%w/v),4 time daily starting 24h after surgery for up to 28 days
  • Rectal
  • Post _operative pain
  • Adults 75 to 150mg in daily divided doses
  • Child 6 to 12 year: q 1 to 2 mg/kg/day in duvided doses for max. Of 4 days.


  • Tablets 25 and 50 mg plain; 75 and 100 mg
  • SR: Capsules 100mg ,100mg CR:
  • Injection : 3ml ampoule (25mg /mlg: Eye /Ear.
  • Drops: 0.1%w/v: suppositories 25,50and 100 mgmGel q%w/w

Common side effects

  • Vomiting
  • Stomach pain
  • Stomach ulcer
  • Nausea
  • Indigestion
  • Diarrhea


Works :

  • It is an antihistaminic medication. It treat allergy symptoms such as itching, swelling, and rashes by blocking the effects of a chemical messager in the body.

Uses :

  • It is used in the treatment of allergic condition


  • Allergic rhinitis : Adult 120mg ones daily Child (6_11year)_30mg twice daily. Urticaria and skin allergy Availability Tablets 30,60,120 and 180mg; syrup 30mg/5ml. Adult _180mg once daily. Child (6month to 2 years) :15mg twice

Common side effects

  • Headache
  • Drowsiness
  • Nausea
  • Dizziness



  • Codeine is an opioid analgesic which works by blocking transmission of pain signals to the brain to lower pain perception.

Uses :

  • It is used for moderate to severe pain and dry cough.
  • Availability; Tablets 1mg, 30mg, Syrup 15mg/tml.

Dose oral

  • Adult_30 to 60 Mg every 4.
  • Child _1year to 12 year :3 mg/kg does daily
  • Adult _symptomatic relief of
  • Acute diarrhoea 30 Mg to 4 times daily
  • Child -500 micrograms /kg 4_6 times daily.

Common side effects

  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Constipation
  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Sleeping



  • Aspirin is a non _steroidal anti inflammatory drug with anti platalets action. It works by preventing platelets from sticking together which decreases the formation of harmful blood clots
  • This lowers the chance of heart attack


  • Heart attack. -It decreases the chance of having another heart attack or stroke form disease related to your heart or blood vessels.


  • Tablets 50,60,75,80,150,300,325mg

Common side effects

  • Indigestion
  • Heartburn
  • Upset stomach
  • Nausea Vomiting
  • Increased bleeding tendency

So guys, I hope you have understood the concept of the Drugs through this information. Share this information with your friends and family.

Thank You….!

Water Pollution

Hi friends,
Today I am going to give information about Water Pollution.

Pollution means adding impurities in environment which is harmful to living things.


Water Pollution –
Definition – Change in physics chemical ,biological charactristics of water which causes harmful effects on living things.

In that polluted water consist some substance that’s like chemicals, microorganisms, contaminate a stream, river, lake ocean, aquifer and other body water. Reduce the quality of water and rendering it toxic to humans as well as environment.

Water and Water Cycle Two -thirds of the Earths surface is covered by water, seventy-six perfect of your body is made up of water. As you already know water is everything and all around. However, we have a fixed amount of water on earth. It just changes its states and goes through a cyclic order, know as the Water Cycle.


Sources of Water Pollution :
Some of the most commonly occurring water pollutants are –

  • Domestic Wates
  • Industrial effuents
  • Insecticides and pesticides
  • Detergents and Fertilizers
  • water pollution that caused is by Direct Sources, such as factories, waste management facilities, refineries etc. That release waste and harmful by-products in the nearest water source without treating them. Indirect sources include pollutant that enter the water bodies via groundwater or soil or via the atmosphere as acid rain.

Effects of Water Pollution Disease : In human, drinking or consuming polluted water any way has many disatorus effects on our health. It causes typhoid, cholera ,hepatitis and other diseases.

Destruction of Ecosystems :
Living things are extremely dynamic and respond to even small changes in the environment. Water pollution can destroy entire ecosystems to collapse if left unchecked.

Eutrophication : Chemicals in the water of body, encourage the growth of algae. These algae from a layer on top of the pond as well as lake. Bacteria attack on the algae and this decreases the amount of oxygen in the water body, severely affecting the aquatic life there.

Effects the food chain : Disruption in food chains happens when toxins and pollutants in the water are consumed by aquatic animals (fish, selfish etc) which are then consumed by humans.

Prevention : The best way to prevent large -scale water pollution is to try and reduce it’s harmful effects. This are the small various changes & we can make to protect ourselves from a scary future where water is scarce.


Saving Water : Conserving water is our first aim. Water wastage is a major problem globally and we are only now waking up to this issue. Your small changes you can make domestically will make a huge difference.

Best treatment of sewage : So treating waste products before disposing of it in a water body helps reduce water pollution on a large scale. Agriculture or other industries can reuse this wastewater by reducing it’s toxic contents.
Use environmentally good products : By using soluble products that do not go on to become pollutants, we can reduce the amount of water pollution caused by a household.

So, guys I hope you have understood the concept of the water pollution through this information. Share this information with your friends & family .

Thank you..!

Accelerometer Sensor

Hii... Friends ,

  One of the most important part in  smartphone is,      

Today I am going to give information about Accelerometer sensor in smartphones.

In today’s generation smartphone come with a wealth of sensor to better facilitate a good experience used, provide more aaps with sutaible or enhanced about the world around information the phone and also provide robust as well as increased life of battery.

Accelerometer sensor is the most important part in the mobile phone. It is an electromagnetical device.
It is used to measure acceleration force. Such force may be static, like as the continuous force of gravity and also used as is the case with many mobile device dynamic to sence movement and also vibration.

Accelerometer sensor are ICs that measures acceleration which is the change in speed per unit time measuring.

The accelerometer can be used for academic and consumer purpose.
If your laptop or phone drops suddenly while you are using it, an accelerometer can identify reason of the sudden free fall and turn off the hard drive right go to avoid any damage data.

In smartphone the accelerometer is is the one that changing the orientation of the display from portrait to landscape as well as based on the title of phone.

The accelerometer is sensor that enables user with a upgrade experience by the adjejst orientation of the screen aap in the smartphone.
The mobile phone accelerometer is the core objective is as per the device position from horizontal to vertical the device adapts the orientation. To provide to comfortable viewing experience to the user. While using a banking aap then portrait view is more preferred by usre compair to the vertical as it is quite easy to add as well as read this information.

The accelerometer sensor in the smartphone comprise at least a title sensor to manage to view of the picture. It is used purpose to auto rotation of images and play motion sensitive mini games as well as correct shake while taking pictures etc.

      Thank you ...!!