Today I am going to give you information about nucleotide in DNA…
DNA stands for deoxiribo Nucleic Acid. It has acidic properties and is present in the nucleus. Since it contains deoxiribose sugar, it is called Deoxiribonuclecic acid.
Structure of DNA
DNA is a double helical molecule consisting of two long strands which are colide around a common, imagenery, central axis forming double helix.
This structure of DNA was described by Watson and Crick.
- Nucleotide is the structural unit of the nucleic acid.
- Deoxiribonucleotides are units in the DNA molecule.
Each Deoxiribonucleotide has three components
- Pentose Sugar
- Phosphate Group
- Nitrogen Base
- In DNA the pentose sugar is called as deoxyribose, and in RNA, the sugar is ribose.The deoxyribose sugar /pentose sugar contains five carbon atoms. .
- In which the difference between the sugars is the absence on the 2′ carbon of the deoxyribose and its 2′ carbon of the ribose hydroxyl jgroup is present pentose Sugars.
- The deoxiribose and pentose sugars ribose are part of the nucleotides that make up the crucial nucleic acids like DNA and RNA .
- Due to its pentose sugars /deoxyribose sugar, in which contains one less oxygen-containing hydroxyl group, DNA is a more stable molecule than RNA, which is useful for a molecule which has the task of keeping genetic information safe.
- In which RNA, the containing a ribose sugar, is more reactive than DNA and is not stable in alkaline conditions.
Phosphate Group Definition- It is defined as a When it is attached to a molecule containing carbon, it is called a phosphate group.
- Pentose sugar is found in the genetic material DNA and RNA, and is also in molecules such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that provide energy to cells. Phosphates can form phospholipids, which make up the cell membrane.
- Phosphate group is phosphoric acid (H3PO4) having three active -OH groups. Two of these are involved in the strand formation.
- In which phosphate the other thing about phosphate backbones is the energy for producing the DNA polymer comes from the phosphate itself.
- When the DNA is synthesized, there is an ATP, an energy molecule, that’s part of the phosphate backbone that is used to link the DNA together.
Nitrogenous bases are of two main types:
- Purines -(Adenine (A) and Guanine (G)), and
- Pyrimidine– (Cytosine (C) and Thymine (T)).
In a nucleotide, there are two bonds :
- Glycosidic Bonds – between sugar and nitrogen base
- Phosphodister Bond- between phosphate and sugar molecule.
Nucleoside- Sugar and nitrogen base together are called nucleoside where as Nucleotide- phosphate added to nucleoside from a nucleotide.
- There are hydrogen bonds between purines and pyramidines of the opposing DNA strand. Since these bond appears as the rungs of a ladder, hence the DNA molecule looks like a twisted ladder.
- Purine adenine mostly /always paired with pyramidine thymine, and guanine is mostly /always paired with cytosine. These are known as base pairs.
So guys, I hope you have understood the concept of nucleotide in DNA through this information,
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