Ozone layer depletion consequences :

Hi friends today we are going to discuss about depletion of the ozone layer.

The key is that the ozone molecule is nothing more than an oxygen molecule that has received an extra oxygen atom through an electrically high voltage. The ozone layer is the most commonly known example, in which ozone is produced by ultraviolet rays (UV) received from the sun. …
Ozone depletion, the release of chemical compounds from gaseous chlorine or bromine-containing industries, or other human activities, gradually depletes the Earth’s ozone layer in the upper atmosphere. Thinning is most common in the polar regions, especially in Antarctica.

What is ozone?

  • O3
  • A gas composed of three atoms of oxygen.
  • Bluish gas that is harmful to breathe.
  • About 90% of the Earth’s ozone is in the stratosphere and is referred to as the ozone layer.
  • Ozone absorb a band of ultraviolet radiation called UVB.

Formation of Ozone Layer

O2+ sunlight =O+O

Ozone (O3)
Oxygen molecules are formed when UV collides with the stratosphere. Oxygen molecules merge with oxygen.
O2 = O + O
Atomic oxygen quickly combine with other oxygen molecule to form ozone

Ozone depletion

Ozone layer depletion consequences
  • Ozone depletion is the depletion of the ozone layer in the stratosphere.
  • Unlike pollution, which has many types and causes, ozone depletion has been a major human activity.
  • Uses insulating items such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) such as insulating foam, solvents, soaps, air conditioners, refrigerators and take-away containers.
  • Depletion being when CFC’s get into the stratosphere .
  • Ulta violet radiation from the sun breaks up these CFC’s.

The breaking up action releases chlorine atoms.

Atoms of chlorine is react with ozone and start a chemical cycle that destroys the good ozone in that area.
One Cholrine atom can break apart more than 100.000 ozone molecules.

Causes of ozone depletion

Man made causes

  1. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s)
  2. Halons
  3. Methyl Chloroform
  4. Hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCS )
  5. Natural causes

Impacts of Ozone depletion
Harm to human health

  • More skin cancer, sunburns and premature aging of the skin.
  • More characters, blindness and other eye diseases.
  • Adverse impact on Agriculture.
  • UV radiation damages plant growth, especially in plants.
  • Major crop species are primarily vulnerable to increase, UV resulting in reduced growth, photosynthesis and flowring.

Effects on plant

Ozone layer depletion consequences

Physiological and development processes of plans are affected by UVB radiation, even by the amount of UVB in present day sunlight.

Effects on animal

In domestic animals, UV overexposure many cause eye and skin cancers. Marine species (e.g., young fish, prawns, and larvae) have been threatened in recent years by increased UV radiation under the Antarctic ozone.

Effects on material

Wood, plastic, rubber, fabrics and many conversations materials are degrated by UV radiation.
The economic impact of replacing and /or protecting.
material could be significant.

What is the state of the ozone layer?

  • Since the inception of the Montreal Protocol, European consumption (EEA-28 in 1986) has dropped to zero ozone-depleting potential (ODP) in 2002, where it still stands.
  • The depletion of the ozone layer is a profound crisis caused by UV-B radiation reaching the earth’s surface, affecting humans and all living things.
  • This basic chain of ozone depletion has anthropogenic action, and global climate change has occurred in this century.

Importance of ozone layer

  • Ozone is concentrated in the lower stratosphere between 15 and 30 km above the earth surface -the so called Ozen layer.
  • Ozone can be produce by numerous chemical reaction, but the main mechanism in the atmosphere for it’s production and removal in absorption of ultra violet radiat energy from the sun.
  • The maintenance of enough stratosphere Ozen the absorb harmful Ulta violet sunlight is therefore vitally important to all life forms on earth.

Measures to prevent the ozone depletion

Ozone layer depletion consequences
  • Limit private vehicle driving
  • Use eco-friendly household cleaning products
  • Avoid using pesticides
  • Developing stringent regulations for roket lunches
  • Banning the use of dangerous nitrous oxide.

Conclusion and suggestions of ozone layer depletion:


  • The depletion of the ozone layer is a profound crisis caused by UV-B radiation reaching the earth’s surface, affecting humans and all living things.
  • This basic chain of ozone depletion has anthropogenic action, and global climate change has occurred in this century.
  • This leads to numerous health problems such as heat related problems, skin cancer and other environmental disturbances affecting biological life.
  • Therefore, everyone should be well aware of the harmful effects of ozone depleting agents such as CFCs, plastics, fossil fuels, etc. and reduce and avoid using them.
  • We must all pledge to save nature and keep everyone alive.


  1. Avoid using refrigerators or air conditioners that run using CFC refrigerants.
  2. Maintain devices using CFCs to prevent leakages.
  3. Avoid aerosol products with CFC.
  4. Avoid fossil fuels and use renewable fuel.
  5. Use solar energy.

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Digital electronics and it’s application

Hi friends today we are going to discuss about new things “Digital Electronics And it’s application “

What is Digital Electronics ???

Digital electronics or digital (electronic) circuit are electronics that handel digital signals. (Discrete bands of analog levels) rather than by continuous ranges as used in analog electronics.
It is based upon the digital design methodologies and consist of digital circuits, IC’s and logic gates.
We are study the digital electronics and it’s application

Digital electronics

Digital Electronics Quick History.

  • Before to digital technology, electronic transmission was limited to analog technology, which conveys electronic signals of varying frequency or amplitude.
  • In the 1930′ s the prototypes of the computer were constructed from mechanical switches (vacuum tubes)
  • The next stage in the 1940’s was the use of electronic
  • diodes, and while these were better but they were unreliable.
  • The next stage was the result of the development in 1947 of the transistors which was much smaller, faster and cooler.
  • Simple transistors were replaced by electronic circuits. (ICs) and that got smaller and smaller and finally deposited on silicone to be put into a “chip “.

Analog system

The team ” analogue ” describes the proportional relationship between a signal and a voltage or current that represents the signal. The world analogue is derived from the Greek word analogue meaning “proportional ” .

Advantages of ICs

  • Smaller components
  • Less volume and weight of the equipment
  • Reduction of power consumption
  • Cost reduction
  • More reliable

Analog VS Digital Systems:

  • Analog computers only work with analog quantities of continuous numerical data
  • Digital computers can process both non – numerical and numerical data.

Digital electronics and it’s application

  • Data Transmission using Digital systems
  • The digital system spend the data in the form of packages of digital codes, thus we can encode and decode them in various forms and codes.
  • Data encryption is also possible in the digital system.
  • Hence the data transmission is more secure, and can be manipulate in many formats ! . Digital systems are much advantages in communications.

Digital electronics safe box

  • The Electronic Digital Safe is perfect for storing your jewelry, valuables and confidential paperwork safely.
  • It’s easy to set up electronic code with floor or wall mounting.
  • There is also a digital lock, incorrect password alarm and two backup keys.
  • There is a cash box with tray to keep your valuable and coins in and a carrying handle for your .


A resistor is made out of multiple flip flops connected to each other used to store multiple bits of data. If we have ‘ n’ flip flops, we can store ‘N’Djamena bits of data.

Shift resister

A shift resistor is a sequential circuit which stores the data and shifts it towards the outputs on every clock cycle.


The microprocessor is also called as logic chip. The microprocessor has all, or most, central processing unit (CPU) functions, and is the “engine” that becomes dynamic when you turn on the computer.

Future Scoops & Possibilities Of Digital Electronics :

Digital electronics
  • It uses digital electronics VLSL technology, which has reduced the size and area of ​​circuit boards and increased the accuracy and efficiency of the system.
  • Moreover digital systems have the advantage of data encryption for the communication purpose.
  • The data transmission is safe and secure.
  • Digital electronics and it’s application More useful in future.

Advantages of Digital Electronics

  • Computer control digital systems can be controlled by software, allowing new functions to be added without changing hardware.
  • Digital systems are easier to store information than analog.
  • The noise-immunity of digital systems permits data to be stored and retrieved without noise.
  • In a digital system are easier to design and more precise representation of a signal can be obtained by using more binary to represent it.
  • More digital circuitry can be fabricated on IC chips.
  • Error management method can be inserted into the single path.
  • To detect errors, and then either correct the errors, or at least ask for a new copy of the data.

Disadvantages of Digital Electronics

  • Conversion to digital format and re-conversation to analog format is needed, which always include the lost of information.
  • In same cases, digital circuits use more energy than analog circuits and produce more heat and need heat sinks.
  • Digital circuits are sometimes more experience, especially in small quantities.

All these factors clearly shows that the digital electronics stream has wide future scope in the modern era!

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Mussels cells in human body : Types of muscle tissue

Hii friends.. Today we are going to discuss about muscles in human body.

What are muscles?
The muscle is a soft tissue . Muscle cells in human body contain protein filaments actin and myosin. That slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. Muscle cells in human body for maintaining and changing posture, locomotion.. The Muscles function to produce force and motion . Mussels cells in human body
: Types of muscle tissue skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscles.

What do you mean by muscular system?

In the body of human muscular system is an organ system . Mussels cells in human body : Types of muscle tissue skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscles.

  • It is an permits movement of the body, maintains posture and circulates blood throughout the body, together with the skeletal system, it forms the musculoskeletal system, which is responsible for movement of the human body.
  • In which in vertebrates are controlled through the nervous system although some muscles can be completely autonomous.

What is the function of Muscle cells in human body?

  • The muscular system is a composed of specialized cells called muscle fibers.
  • Their predominant function is contractibility.
  • In the body of human muscular system is an organ system are attached to the bones or internal organs and blood vessels, are responsible for movement.

Mussels cells in human body : Types of muscle tissue

Mussels cells  in human body : Types of muscle tissue
  1. Cardiac Muscle
  2. Smooth Muscle
  3. Skeletal Muscle

1) Cardiac muscle

Cardiac muscle cell are found in the myocardium as well as is responsible for the contraction of the heart satellite cells.



  • Cardiac muscle tissue are found in the heart, as well as are specialized to pump blood powerfully and efficiently throughout our entire lifetime.
  • characteristics of cardiac muscle tissue cells
  • They are involuntary and intrinsically controlled, striated, branched, and single nucleated.
  • Function

Cardiac Function

  • The Cardiac muscle cells works to keep your heart pumping through involuntary movements.
  • It is one feature that differentiates it from skeletal muscle tissue, which you can control.
  • It does this through specialized cells called pacemaker cells.
  • These control the contractions of your heart.

Tissue location
Cardiac muscle cells are located in the
1) walls of the heart
2) appear striated
3)under involuntary control. Smooth muscle fibers are located in walls of hollow visceral organs, except the heart, appear spindle-shaped, and are also under involuntary control.

2) Smooth muscle cells

Smooth muscle cells are responsible for involuntary contractions


Tissue Location

Smooth muscle are found in the walls of blood vessels and hollow organs such as the gastrointestinal tract, uterus , and bladder. They are also present in the eye also contract changing the shape of the lens causing the eye to focus.

Tissues Function

Smooth muscle is also responsible for waves of contraction throughout the digestive system, forcing food to move through the body (peristalsis).

3) Skeletal muscle cells


The skeletal muscles are long,cylindrical, multi-nucleated and striated. Each nucleus regulates the metabolic requirements of the sarcoplasm around it. Skeletal muscle cells have high energy requirements, so they contain many mitochondria in order to generate sufficient ATP. In which the skeletal muscles sarcoplasm consists of myofibrils, which in turn are made up of thick and thin myofilaments.

Tissues Function

These cells form the muscle that we use to move as well as produce contraction due to the sliding of myosin heads over the actin filaments. This process is regulated by factor functions.

Mussels cells in human body : Types of muscle tissue: Are a unique structure and a specific role.

  • Skeletal muscle moves bones and other structures.
  • Cardiac muscle contracts the heart to pump blood.
  • Smooth muscle tissues are that forms organs like the stomach as well as bladder changes shape to facilitate bodily functions.


  • Skeletal muscle is voluntary and striated.
  • cardiac muscle is involuntary and straited.
  • smooth muscle is involuntary and non-striated.

Shapes of muscle

  • Circular
  • Convergent
  • Parallel
  • Pennate
  • Fusiform

What are the roles of Muscle cells in human body

  • Muscles function to produce force and motion.
  • Muscles are primarily responsible for maintaining and changing posture, locomotion,
  • And movement of internal organs, such as the contraction of the heart as well as the movement of food through the digestive system via peristalsis.

Major properties of the muscular system.

1) Excitable or Irritable.
2) Contractible.
3) Extensible.
4) Elasticity.
5) Adaptability.

…………We have learned that our bodies are made of 3 different muscles – cardiac, smooth, and skeletal. All three different muscles have the same job – to contract and relax

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