Human Liver Autonomy

Hii friends, Today we are going to discuss about autonomy of human liver


The liver is a essential organ In the human body. In the liver multiple functions. It is makes a many of the chemicals required by the body to function normally, it breaks down and detoxifies substances in the body, and it is also acts as a storage unit in the body.

It has many functions in the body

1)Including making proteins and 2)Blood clotting factor 3)Manufacturing triglycerides 4)Cholesterol 5)Glycogen synthesis 6)Bile production

Structure of liver
  • In the human body the largest internal organ is liver and it is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and is protected by the lower right ribs.
  • It is also extends across the midline toward the left upper quadrant of the abdomen.
  • The liver is enlarged, it will grow further across the upper abdomen and down towards the navel (umbilicus).

The liver is a divided into two lobes

It has a rich blood supply obtained from two sources;
1) 1st lobe is the portal vein . It delivers blood from the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, intestine, colon) and spleen, and
2) The hepatic artery supplies blood from the heart.

Why is the liver so important?
  • The liver is the one of the largest organs in the body.
  • It has many important metabolic functions.
  • It is converts the nutrients in our diets into substances that the body can use, stores these substances, and supplies cells with them when needed.

In the liver’s main function

Is to filter the blood coming from the digestive tract, before passing it to the rest of the body. The liver is also detoxifies chemicals & metabolizes drugs.

The primary functions of the liver are:

  • Bile production and excretion.
  • Excretion of bilirubin, cholesterol,hormones and drugs.
  • Metabolism of fats,proteins and carbohydrates.
  • Enzyme activation.
  • Storage of glycogen, vitamins, and minerals. synthesis of plasma proteins, such as albumin, and clotting factors.

Some interesting facts about the liver

The liver consists of 96% water. (The water is inside the cells and in blood.)

Ways to a Healthy Liver

  • Maintain a healthy weight. …
  • Eat a balanced diet. …
  • Exercise regularly. …
  • Avoid toxins. …
  • Use alcohol responsibly. …
  • Avoid the use of illicit drugs. …
  • Avoid contaminated needles…
  • Get medical care if you’re exposed to blood…

Stages of liver failure

1)Inflammation. In this early stage, the liver is enlarged or inflamed.
2)Fibrosis. Scar tissue begins to replace healthy tissue in the inflamed liver.
3)Cirrhosis. Severe scarring has built up, making it difficult for the liver to function properly.
End-stage liver disease (ESLD). …
Liver cancer

Different Disease Processes. Including Infections
  • Hepatitis
  • Cirrhosis (scarring)
  • Cancers
  • Damage by medications or toxins.

Symptoms of liver

  • Disease can Include
  • Jaundice Abdominal pain
  • Swelling
  • Confusion
  • Bleeding
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss

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Human Spinal Cord

Hi friends, Today we are going to discuss about Spinal Cord in human body.

Spinal cord

  • The spinal cord is a support system of the body
  • In human body the spinal cord is a long cylinder of nerves that runs from the base of your brain through the vertebral canal through the backbone.
  • It is a part of the central nervous system (CNS) along with the brain.
  • It is a divided into different segments.
  • In that each segment contains a pair roots made out of nerve fibres. The spinal cord is (in yellow) connects the brain to nerves throughout the body.

Importance spinal cord

  • Spinal Cord is important part in body because without a spinal cord your brain and your body couldn’t communicate with each other.
  • The spinal cord is the pathway for impulses from the brain to the body and from the body to the brain, and .
  • These impulses are the different signals our brain sends and receives from our bodies.

Physiology of the spinal cord

  • what makes it work. The spinal column consists of the bones that contain and protect the spinal cord.
  • The bones are of the spinal column or vertebrae help hold us up and together.
  • The spinal cord extends from the brain.

What is the structure of spinal cord?

The structure of spinal cord is a cylindrical structure of nervous tissue composed of white and gray matter, is uniformly organized and is divided into four regions.

  • Cervical (C)
  • Thoracic (T)
  • Lumbar (L)
  • Sacral (S)

1) Cervical
  • In the spinal cord the cervical portion of the spine comprises the top portion of the spinal cord, comprising seven vertebrae (C1 – C7) in the neck.
  • They closer to the brain and affecting a larger portion of the body, cervical spinal cord injuries are typically the most severe variety of spinal cord injury.

2) Thoracic
  • Thoracic spin – the main function of the thoracic spine is to hold the rib cage and protect the heart and lungs.
  • The T1 to T12 are twelve thoracic vertebrae numbered T1 to T12.
  • The motion of range in the thoracic spine is limited.

3) Lumbar
  • The Lumbar spine – In that the main function of the lumbar spine is to bear the weight of the body.
  • LA to L5 are the five lumbar vertebrae are numbered.
  • These vertebrae are larger in size to absorb the stress of lifting and carrying heavy objects.

4) Sacral
  • The sacral spine (sacrum) is the located below the lumbar spine and above the tailbone, which is known as the coccyx.
  • 5 bones that are fused together make up the triangle-shaped sacrum, and these bones are numbered S-1 to S-5.

Functions Of Spine

  • The spine protect the spinal cord, nerve roots and several of the body’s internal organs.
  • The spine provide structural support and balance to maintain an upright posture.
  • Enable flexible motion.

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Hi friends,

Today we are going to discuss about information of capacitor

A capacitor is a electrical device that is stores electrical energy in an electric field. Capacitors are the passive electronic components with two terminals. The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance.

What is a capacitor used for?

It is used to store energy electrostatically in an electric field.k
Capacitors are widely used in electronic devices to maintain power supply while batteries are being changed.

In electronic circuits Capacitors are widely used to perform variety of tasks, such as

  • Smoothing
  • Filtering,
  • Bypassing

In the capacitors contain at least two electrical conductors often in the form of metallic plates or surfaces separated by a dielectric medium. In which a conductor may be a foil, thin film, sintered bead of metal, or an electrolyte.
In that the nonconducting dielectric include glass, ceramic, plastic film, paper, mica, air, and oxide layers.That is increase the capacitor’s charge capacity.

A Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. Unlike a resistors,an ideal capacitor does not dissipate energy, although real-life capacitors do dissipate a small amount (see Non-ideal behavior).
When across the terminals of a capacitor the electric potential, a voltage, is applied to ,

For example, when a capacitor is connected across a battery, an electric field develops across the causing dielectric net positive charge to collect on one plate and net negative charge to collect on the other plate. No of current actually flows through the dielectric. When there is a flow of charge through the source circuit. In that condition is maintained Sufficiently long, the current through the source circuit ceases.


  • It can charge and accumulate energy quickly
  • It can deliver the stored energy quickly
  • It is losses are small compared to other storage medium
  • It is long service life and low (or no) maintenance


  • It is low energy capacity compared to batteries
  • It is limited energy storage per dollar cost
  • It is stored energy will eventually deplete due to internal losses


  • Power conditioning,
  • Signal coupling or decoupling
  • Electronic noise filtering
  • Remote sensing

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Composition of Blood

Hii Friends, Today we are going to discuss about Composition of Blood.

Blood – Blood is a main circulating fuild in the human body. Study of blood is called Hematology. The system in which blood is circulated throughout the body is called circulating system.

  • The main circulating, bright red, slightly alkaline fuild in the human body .
  • Study of blood is called haematology.
  • Blood is a fuild connective tissue derived from mesoderm. It has pH about 7.4.
  • There are about 5 litters of blood in the body which is about 8 %of the total body weight.

Composition of blood

There are two main components of blood, viz.,

  • Plasma (55%)
  • Blood corpuscles (45%)

  • Plasma is a straw coloured fuild part of blood, slightly alkaline, viscous fuild consisting of 90 – 92 % water and 8-10% of solutes.
  • Solutes are 7% proteins (serum,albumin,serum globulin, heparin, fibrinogen and prothrombin).
  • Other solutes are nutrients (glucose, amino acids, fatty acids and glycerol.)
  • Nitrogenous wastes such as urea, uric acid, ammonia and creatinine.
  • Gases like oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
  • Regulatory substance like enzymes and hormones.
  • Inorganic substances like bicarbonates ,chlorides, phosphates and sulphates of sodium potassium, calcium, magnesium, etc.

Blood corpuscles

Blood corpuscles are solid part of blood. They are of three types, viz. Erythrocytes (RBCs), leucocytes (WBCs) and thrombocytes (platalets) .

Erythrocytes or RBCs
  • Circular, bioconcave, enclueated cells of about 7micrometer in diameter and 2.5micrometer in thickness.
  • RBC count is about 5.1 to 5.8 million RBCs in male and 4.3 to 5.2 million in females. The average life span of RBC is about 120 days.
  • Erythropoiesis is formation of RBCs. It occurs in liver and spleen in foetus and in red bone marrow in adults.
  • The old RBCs are destroyed in liver and spleen.
  • Polycythemia is increase while erythrocytopenia is decreases in number of RBCs.
  • RBCs contain respiratory pigment called haemoglobin which helps in transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  • The normal haemoglobin content in adult male is 13-18 mg/100 ml of blood and 11.5-16.5mg/100 ml of blood in adult female.
  • Less amount of haemoglobin leads to anaemia.

Leucocytes or WBCs
  • Leucocytes are colourless, nucleated, amoeboid and phagocytic cells.
  • They show diapedesis, I.e. squeezing out of blood capillaries by amoeboid movement.
  • The size is about 8 to 15 umicrometer.
  • Total WBC count is 5000 to 9000 WBCs /cu my of blood.
  • The average life span of WBCs is about 3 to 4 days.
  • Leucopoiesis or formation of WBCs. It occurs in red bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, tonsil thymus and payers patches.
  • Leukemia or blood cancer is a pathological increase in no of WBCs.
  • Leucocytes are of two types, viz., granulocytes and agranulocyctes.

Thrombocytes or platalets
  • Thrombocytes are smallest, nonnucleated, round and biconvex. They are of about 2.5 to 5 micro m in diameter.
  • Their life span is about 5 to 10 days.
  • Megakaryocytes of bone marrow from thrombocytes.
  • Thrombopoiesis is the formation of platelets.
  • Thrombocytosis is the increase while thrombocytopenia is the decrease in platalets count.
  • Thrombocytes help in coagulation of blood by releasing thromboplastine.

So guys, I hope you have understood the concept of composition of blood through this information. Share this information friends and family.

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Introduction of Environmental Science

Hii friends, Today I am going to give you information about Environmental Science .

Environmental science
Definition :The environmental science is defined as study of interaction of human being with environment.

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Segments of Environment
Environment can be classified into various segments

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  • Lithosphere
  • Biosphere
  • Hydrosphere
  • Atmosphere

Segment Of Environment

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  • Atmosphere : It is composed of the air.
  • Hydrosphere : The surface of earth filled with any source of water.
  • Lithosphere : The outer shell of the composed of crust and rigid outer most mantle.
  • Biosphere : The place on earth where life exists.

Need of Environmental Studies

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  • To inspire everybody to use our environmental resources with care.
  • To explain the concept of environmental degradation.
  • To identify various factors causing environmental degradation.
  • To prevent of adverse effect on our environment .
  • Not to ignore the environmental issues.

Objective of EVS

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  • The Awareness : about our environment and it’s allied problems.
  • In the Knowledge : experience about our environment and acquire basic understanding and associated
  • Problems Skill : Identifying and solving environmental problems
  • The Participation : providing opportunity to be involved in resolving the environmental problems.

Importance of EVS

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  • The EVS enlighten is the importance of protection and conservation of our environment
  • In that the EVS have become significant for the following reasons :
  • Environment issues being of international importance
  • Problems cropped in the wake of development
  • Explosive increase in pollution
  • Need for an alternative solution
  • Need to save humanity from extinction
  • Need for wise planning of development

Benefits of EVS

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  • Conservation of energy and fast depleting natural resources.
  • Increase in economics productivity
  • Imparting knowledge about west management, treatment and disposal.
  • Develop social responsibility towards environment protection
  • Creating awareness to control population.
  • values towards understanding as well as Inculcating attitude interdependence of nature and man and work towards sustainable development.

Green Technology or clean Tech

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  • It Is the application of products as well as the development, equipment and systems used to conserve the natural environment and resources, which minimize and reduce the negative impact of human activities.
  • Criteria of Green Tech products, equipment or system
  • It minimizes the degradation of the environment.
  • It is safe for use and promotes healthy and improved enivorment for all forms of life.
  • It conserves the use of energy and natural resources
  • It promotes the use of renewable resource.

Examples of clean Tech

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  • Unleaded petrol, sulphur free coal, CNG, LPG, Bio -fules hybrid vehicles
  • Air pollution control equipments like catalytic converters, electrostatic precipitators, fual gas desulphurization units etc.
  • Genetically engineered crops which requires less chemical pesticides due to their genetic resistance to diseases and pests
  • Solar energy Hydro energy Ocean energy geothermal energy wind energy as alternative
  • Recycling of west paper, metal, glass, flyash, slag, red mud etc.

Goals of green tech :

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  • The Cradle to cradle design – ending the cradle to grave cycle of manufactured products, by creating products that can be fully reclaimed or re -used.
  • Source reduction -reduction waste and pollution by changing pattern of production and consumption.
  • The Innovation _The technologies alternative.
  • In developing – whether fossil fuel or chemical intensive .
  • In agriculture -that have been demonstrated to damage health and the enivorment.
  • In the viability -the creating is a center of economic activity around technologies and products that benefit the environment, speeding their implementation and creating new careers that truly protect the planet.

Green Tech Subject Areas

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  • Energy -development of alternative fules, new means of generating energy and energy efficiency
  • In that Green building -encompasses everything from the choice of building materials to building location .
  • In which the environmentally preferred purchasing – government purchasing of products whose contents and methods of production have the smallest possible impact on the environment.
  • The Green chemistry – In that the design, application of chemical productsinvention, and processes to reduce &eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substance.
  • Green nanotechnology – application of green chemistry and green engineering principales to materials at nano scale
  • Green computing – designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers and associated subsystem, effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment.

So guys, I hope you have understood the concept of environmental science through this information. Share this information with your friends and family

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Life Cycle Of Malarial Parasite (Plasmodium)

Hii friends, Today I am going to give you information about life cycle of malaria parasites.

Malaria –

  • The life cycle of the malarial parasite (Plasmodium) is complicated and involves two hosts, humans and female Anopheles mosquito.
  • The disease is transmitted to humans when an infected Anopheles mosquito bites a person and injected the malaria parasites (sporozoites) into the blood.
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  • Malaria is a mosquito -borne infection disease of humans caused by protist Plasmodium know as malaria parasite.
  • It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including much of sub-saharmAfrica,Asia and America,
  • This malaria deases results are from the multiplication of malaria parasites in red blood cells and causing symptoms that typically include fever and headache in severe cases progressing to coma, and death.

There are four species of malaria parasites /Plasmodium can infect and be transmitted by humans. Server diseases is largely caused by

  • Plasmodium malariae
  • .Plasmodium vivax
  • Plasmodium ovale
  • Plasmodium falciparum.

How is malarial parasite transmitted?

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  • The life cycle of the malarial parasite (Plasmodium) is complicated and involves two hosts, humans and female Anopheles mosquito.
  • The disease is transmitted to humans when an infected Anopheles mosquito bites a person and injected the malaria parasites (sporozoites) into the blood.

Life cycle of malaria parasites in Anopheles mosquito

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  • Mosquitoes first ingest the malarial parasite while feeding on an infected human.
  • Once ingested, the gametocytes get differentiated into male or female gametes and fuse in the mosquitoes gut.
  • This produces an ookinete that penetrates the gut lining and products an oocyst in the gut wall.
  • When the oocyst ruptures,it releases sporozoites that migrate to the salivary glands. The sporozoites are injected into the skin, when the mosquito bites a normal person .
  • Only female mosquitoes feed on blood while male mosquitoes feed on plant sap, thus males do not spread the deases.

In the human body – life cycle of malaria parasites

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  • Malaria develops via two phases : an pereryotic and an erythrocytic phase.
  • The preerythrocytic phase involves infection of the liver.
  • On the red blood cells the erythrocytic phase involves infection
  • When mosquito bites a person, sporozoites enter the blood stream, and migrate to the liver.
  • The liver cells (hepatocytes) they infect ,where they multiply into merozoites.
  • They rupture the liver cell, and escape into the blood stream.
  • Then,merozoites infect red blood cells, where they develop into ring froms , trophozoites and then schizonts which in turn produce further merozoites.
  • Within the erythrocytes, the parasites multiply asexually, periodically breaking out of their hosts to invade fresh red blood cells.
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Signs and symptoms
Symptoms of malaria

  • Fever shivering
  • Arthragia (joint pain)
  • Vomiting
  • Anaemia
  • Hemoglobinuria
  • Retinal damage
  • Convulsions


  • Malaria transmission can be reduced by preventing mosquito bites by mosquito nets and insect repellents, or by mosquito control measure such as spraying insecticides and draining standing water where mosquitoes lay their eggs.
  • The mosquito larvae can be controlled by realeas of Gambusia fish.

So guys, I hope you have understood the concept of life cycle of malaria parasites through this information. Share this information with your friends and family.

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Hii friends, Today I am going to give you information about Sericulture.

Sericulture –
Sericulture it is a branch of applied zoology which deals with rearing of silkworms and production of silk.

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Importance of Sericulture –

  • Sericulture is a more useful work, Sericulture provides gainful employment, economic development and improvement in the quality of life to the people in rural area and therefore it plays an important role in anti poverty programme as well as prevents migration of rural people to urban area in search of employment.

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  • As a natural fiber, silk needs no introduction. It is renewable, eco-friendly, and durable.
  • It is useful because of the natural fineness, beautiful luster and luxurious elegance, the demand for silk is constantly rising. n the India, the import demand for silk is so high and is the second largest producer after China.
  • That other natural fibers where the farmer has to do much of the work, with silk, the silkworms produce silk at the finest level with the most beautiful lustrous threads ever seen.
  • That the rearers just need to ensure that the silkworms are fed with the right food and are kept in the right environment.
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Process of Sericulture –

  • This Sericulture,is also called as silk farming, is the process of making silk fibers.
  • It is starts by raising silkworms and then processing the fibers they produce. …
  • This thread can then be twisted into silk yarn or woven into silk cloth (fabric).
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Sericulture where did it originate?

  • Sericulture production, from the moth, Bombyx mori (L.), Sericulture during in that following centuries spread through China and silk became a precious commodity highly sought by other countries
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Advantages of Sericulture-

  • It generates employment opportunity for the unemployed individuals in your locality.
  • We could take our invested money back in the short period of time.
  • Higher profits return.
  • Women empowerment by providing them employment.
  • They are non-hazardous to the environment.
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Methods of Rearing and silkworms

  • Different Types of Silk
  • The Sericulture and Weaving. It is the practice of rearing silkworms for the production of raw silk. …
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Types of Silkworm Rearing

Four types of Silkworm Rearing –

  • Mulberry
  • Eri
  • Muga
  • Tasar

So guys, I hope you have understood the concept of the Sericulture. Share this information with your friends and family.

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“Powerhouse of Cell” Mitochondrion

Hi friends, Today I am going to give information about Powerhouses of cell Mitochondriaon.


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  • Mitochondrion is a essential components of nearly all cells in the body.
  • This mitochondrion are the powerhouses for cells, providing energy to carry out biochemical reactions and other cellular processes.
  • These organelles /Mitochondrion make a energy for cells from the chemical energy stored in the food we eat.

Structure of Mitochondrion

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  • The mitochondrion are double membrane bound cell organelles.
  • Outer membrane is smooth and tightly stretched, while inner membrane criastae.
  • The mitochondrion is a round to oval-shaped organelle .
  • It is afound in the cells of almost all eukaryotic organisms.
  • It is the produces energy, it known as ATP, for the cell through a series of chemical reactions.
  • This mitochondrias are semi -autonomous cell organelles as well as self duplicating organelle.

Generation of mitochondrion

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  • Mitochondrion is are the only organelles in the cell which contain their own DNA, and their own protein making machinery.
  • Mosstly in multi-cellular organisms use today (aerobic respiration, using oxygen). Under aerobic condition, in the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere, pyruvate is completely oxidized to form CO2, H2O and large amount of energy is generated.

Inside membrane in the Mitochondrion

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  • The mitochondrion were once free living organisms on their own that used aerobic respiration.
  • In which the mitochondrion the 5 proteins from the chain on the inner mitochondrial membrane is known as the respiratory chain.
  • That is the transfer the energy along these 5 proteins until it becomes ATP.

Powerhouses of mitochondrion

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  • Mitochondria is called as a “powerhouses of the cell,” mitochondria.
  • It is produce the energy necessary for the cell’s survival and functioning.
  • Through a series of chemical reactions, mitochondria break down glucose into an energy molecule it known as the adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is used to fuel various other cellular processes.
  • In which that addition to producing energy, mitochondria store calcium for cell signaling, generate heat, and are involved in cell growth and death etc.

Energy made in mitochondrion

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  • Our food contains the macromolecules namely carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
  • These energy stored in the molecular bonds of these molecules is converted into a usable energy source in the body is known as ATP.
  • ATP is the only energy currency that can be used in the our bodies.
  • Similar to that in macromolecules, there are many sources of energy including hydro, wind, nuclear etc.
  • The energy sources are different .Energy in our homes is always converted to electricity to power various devices, similar to how only ATP in our cells is used to carry out cellular functions.
  • The production of ATP is a complex process
  • The inner membrane of the mitochondrion is responsible for mass energy production.

The Mitochondrion Found In

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  • Mitochondrias are located in the cytoplasm of cells along with other organelles of the cell.
  • with the exception of a few. There are usually multiple , depending upon the function of that type of cell the mitochondria are found in one cell.
  • Mitochondria are found in the cells in Animals imals, Plants , Eukaryotic Organism.
  • Cells are contain lot of energy, such as muscle cells, can contain hundreds or thousands of mitochondria. That such type of cell like red blood cells, lack mitochondria entirelyMitochondria post.

So guys, I hope you have understand the concept of Power house of mitochondrion through this information

share this information with your friends and family.

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Nucleotide In Deoxyribonucleic Acid

Hello friends,

Today I am going to give you information about nucleotide in DNA…


DNA stands for deoxiribo Nucleic Acid. It has acidic properties and is present in the nucleus. Since it contains deoxiribose sugar, it is called Deoxiribonuclecic acid.

Structure of DNA
DNA is a double helical molecule consisting of two long strands which are colide around a common, imagenery, central axis forming double helix.

This structure of DNA was described by Watson and Crick.

  • Nucleotide is the structural unit of the nucleic acid.
  • Deoxiribonucleotides are units in the DNA molecule.

Each Deoxiribonucleotide has three components
  • Pentose Sugar
  • Phosphate Group
  • Nitrogen Base

1)Pentose Sugar
  • In DNA the pentose sugar is called as deoxyribose, and in RNA, the sugar is ribose.The deoxyribose sugar /pentose sugar contains five carbon atoms. .
  • In which the difference between the sugars is the absence on the 2′ carbon of the deoxyribose and its 2′ carbon of the ribose hydroxyl jgroup is present pentose Sugars.
  • The deoxiribose and pentose sugars ribose are part of the nucleotides that make up the crucial nucleic acids like DNA and RNA .
  • Due to its pentose sugars /deoxyribose sugar, in which contains one less oxygen-containing hydroxyl group, DNA is a more stable molecule than RNA, which is useful for a molecule which has the task of keeping genetic information safe.
  • In which RNA, the containing a ribose sugar, is more reactive than DNA and is not stable in alkaline conditions.

2)Phosphate Group

Phosphate Group Definition- It is defined as a When it is attached to a molecule containing carbon, it is called a phosphate group.

  • Pentose sugar is found in the genetic material DNA and RNA, and is also in molecules such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that provide energy to cells. Phosphates can form phospholipids, which make up the cell membrane.
  • Phosphate group is phosphoric acid (H3PO4) having three active -OH groups. Two of these are involved in the strand formation.
  • In which phosphate the other thing about phosphate backbones is the energy for producing the DNA polymer comes from the phosphate itself.
  • When the DNA is synthesized, there is an ATP, an energy molecule, that’s part of the phosphate backbone that is used to link the DNA together.

3)Nitrogen Base

Nitrogenous bases are of two main types:
  • Purines -(Adenine (A) and Guanine (G)), and
  • Pyrimidine– (Cytosine (C) and Thymine (T)).

In a nucleotide, there are two bonds :

  • Glycosidic Bonds – between sugar and nitrogen base
  • Phosphodister Bond- between phosphate and sugar molecule.

Nucleoside- Sugar and nitrogen base together are called nucleoside where as Nucleotide- phosphate added to nucleoside from a nucleotide.
  • There are hydrogen bonds between purines and pyramidines of the opposing DNA strand. Since these bond appears as the rungs of a ladder, hence the DNA molecule looks like a twisted ladder.
  • Purine adenine mostly /always paired with pyramidine thymine, and guanine is mostly /always paired with cytosine. These are known as base pairs.

So guys, I hope you have understood the concept of nucleotide in DNA through this information,

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