How to Become an Air Hostess? Qualification, Training, Jobs and Salary

Many young graduates want to become air hostess / flight attendant jobs. The air hostess salary is very lucrative. You can join the Air Hostess Course for Air Hostess Training. Nowadays, it is a high profile business in India. Air hostess profession means the dream of young girls.

If this job is not limited to the wedding salary and journey, then you can meet people in different cultures, visit to different places, to visit in different places, celebrities, politicians, business, Tyekon’s and new things.

The job of an air hostess may seem simple, but she has many responsibilities on the plane. In fact, it is not a simple job. The air hostess is required to greet each passenger, coordinate with safety, take care of passengers, guide passengers on seating and safety, and more. If someone creates a problem, not all passengers are the same, the air hostess should be patient and calm and handle that passenger politely.

Air Hostess Training Institute or Academy

If you want to make a career as an air hostess / steward, you can apply here:

  • Rai University, Ahmedabad.
  • Rajiv Gandhi Memorial College of Aeronautics, Jaipur
  • Universal Aviation Academy , Chennai
  • Avalon Academy , Dehradun
  • Universal Airhostess Academy, Chennai.
  • Jet Airways Training Academy, Mumbai. PTC Aviation Academy , Chennai and Bangalore.
  • Indira Gandhi Aeronautics Institute, Jaipur, Chandigarh, Ahmedabad and Ghaziabad .
  • Institute for Personality, Etiquette and Beauty (IPEG India).
  • The above is one of the best training institutes in India.

Air Hostess Eligibility

Eligibility or Qualification for Flight Attendant / Air Hostess in India:

RequiredMinimum Requirements
Degree or 10 + 2Age. 18–26 Complexion.
Height Minimum 157.5 cm, 5.16 inches, BMI
Eyesight Normal vision 6/6 or 6/24, both eyes
Language. Proficient in English Other. languages ​​required.
RequiredMedical Fitness- Medicaly fit no mental illness record
Complexion Fear to a clear complexion
Passport Indian Passport

Air hostess recruitment companies

After undergoing air hostess training in India, you can get a job from any of the following airlines.

  1. Air India
  2. Alliance Air
  3. Go Air
  4. Gulf Air
  5. Indian Airlines
  6. Indigo
  7. Jet Airways
  8. Lufthansa
  9. Singapore Airlines
  10. Air Sahara / Sahara Airlines
  11. British Airways
  12. Qantas Airlines
  13. Delta Airlines
  14. United Air
  15. Cathay Pacific
  16. Tata
  17. Mahindra and Mahindra

Air Hostess Recruitment Process

Airlines recruit candidates through a written test, followed by group discussions and interviews.

Written test

The written test is based on the qualification and logic. The question of multiple choice are in question paper. In this way, we need to prepare better for a written test.

Group Discussion (GD)

The next step is a group discussion, in which your mind presence, communication skills, teamwork, leadership quality, attitude etc. The test is taken. Therefore, you need to know how to prepare for a group discussion, which requires a lot of practice.


Interviews judge your overall personality. Once selected, you will receive training for the next six months.

Behavioral skills are required

You must have some behavioral skills to get an air hostess job if you meet academic, physical or medical qualifications.

  1. Pleasant personality A good look and a pleasant sound are essential. You need to be friendly behavior with the passengers. A friendly and social personality can be an air hostess.
  2. Excellent communication skills Language and communication skills need to be commanded. You need to know how to handle passengers on board and explain to them if they have any questions.
  3. Presence of mind In the event of an emergency landing, the air hostess must be able to instruct inexperienced and on-board passengers to panic. His / her willpower should be strong. Team. Work The air hostess / steward should be a team player. A cabin crew has more than 12-14 members and needs to work in tandem.
  4. Ready to work hours Flight delays are common due to bad weather or technical reasons, so your working hours may increase to an additional 3 to 4 hours.
  5. Positive attitude Finally, the air hostess / steward must have a positive attitude and be willing to do all the assigned jobs.

Air hostess salary

The air hostess salary is different from each airline company. Generally, the salary of an air hostess can range from Rs 20,000 to Rs 80,000 per month. Domestic airlines pay up to Rs.40.000 /per month and international airlines pay up to Rs. 80,000 / – per month based on their work experience. Luxurious international airlines pay Rs 1-2 lakh per month to senior air hostesses.

There are many benefits like discounts on flight tickets, medical insurance and retirement benefits.

Air hostess job for men

As I told you earlier, men can also join the AirCrew. The same article applies to men as well as women.If anyone has any questions about how to become an air hostess, flight attendant or stewardess, share this article with him or her.

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Phases of cardiac cycle

Cardiac Cycle
The human heart is a muscular organ that is about the size of a fist. It pumps blood through a set of connections between arteries and veins, known as the cardiovascular system. ( involves systemic and pulmonary circulation. So we are learn below
phases of cardiac cycle and some more information

Table of Contents

  • Meaning
  • Diagram
  • Physiology
  • Phases
  • Duration

Cardiac Cycle Definition

Cardiac cycle refers to the sequence of events that take place when the heart beats.”

What is Cardiac Cycle?

The cardiac cycle available to a comprehensive heartbeat from its production to the commencement of the next beat. It comprises diastole, the systole, and the intervening pause. The occurrence of a cardiac cycle is illustrated by a heart rate, which is naturally indicated as beats per minute.
A healthy human heart beat 72 times per minute in which states that there are 72 cardiac cycles in every minute. The cardiac cycle include a complete contraction and relaxation of both the atria and ventricles and the cycle last approximately 0.8 seconds.

Cardiac Cycle Diagram

In this diagram represents the different phases of the cardiac cycle. The atrial systole, ventricular diastole, ventricular systole and ventricular diastole are clearly mentioned in the cardiac cycle diagram given below.

cardiac cycle

Cardiac Cycle Physiology
  1. The human heart consists of four chambers, comprising left and right halves.
  2. Two upper chambers include left and right atria; lower two chambers include right and left ventricles.
  3. The key function of the right ventricle is to pump deoxygenated blood through the pulmonary arteries and pulmonary trunk to the lungs.
  4. While the left ventricle is responsible for pumping newly oxygenated blood to the body through the aorta.

Following are the different phases that occur in a cardiac cycle:

Phases of cardiac cycle :

Atrial Diastole: In this stage, chambers of the heart are calmed. That is when the aortic valve and pulmonary artery closes and atrioventricular valves open, thus causing chambers of the heart to relax.

Atrial Systole: At this phase, blood cells flow from atrium to ventricle and at this period, atrium contracts.

Isovolumic Contraction: At this stage, ventricles begin to contract. The atrioventricular valves, valve, and pulmonary artery valves close, but there won’t be any transformation in volume.

Ventricular Ejection: Here ventricles contract and emptying. Pulmonary artery and aortic valve close.

Isovolumic Relaxation: In this phase, no blood enters the ventricles and consequently, pressure decreases, ventricles stop contracting and begin to relax. Now due to the pressure in the aorta – pulmonary artery and aortic valve close.

Ventricular Filling Stage: In this stage, blood flows from atria into the ventricles. It is altogether known as one stage (first and second stage). After that, they are three phases that involve the flow of blood to the pulmonary artery from ventricles.

Also Read: Cardiac Output In a normal person, a heartbeat is 72 beats/minute. So, the duration of one cardiac cycle can be calculated as:

Duration of Cardiac Cycle

1/72 beats/minute=.0139 minutes/beat

At a heartbeat 72 beats/minute, duration of each cardiac cycle will be 0.8 seconds.

Duration of different stages of the cardiac cycle is given below:

Atrial systole: continues for about 0.1 seconds
Ventricular systole: continues for about 0.3 seconds
Atrial diastole: continues for about 0.7 seconds
Ventricular diastole: continues for about 0.5 seconds

Frequently Asked Questions

The different phases of the cardiac cycle involve:

  • Atrial diastole
  • Atrial systole
  • Ventricular ejection
  • Ventricular filling

What happens during systole?

Systole is the period when the heart chambers contract that causes the ejection of blood into the aorta and pulmonary trunk.

What is diastole?

The diastole is the part of the cardiac cycle during which the heart refills blood after it is emptied during the systolic phase.

What are the major symptoms of diastolic dysfunction?

The major symptoms of diastolic dysfunction include:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Weakness
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Lack of appetite

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Solution To Acid Rain

Hii friends today we are going to discuss about nature topic “Acid rain “

What is Acid Rain?

Acid rain is more acidic than normal rain.
Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, the main sources of acid rain.
Acid rain spread and damage involves weather, chemistry, soil, and the life cycle of plant and animal on the land and from acid rain in water.

How to acid rain formed?

Effect On Non -Living
  • The Tag Mahal in Agra, suffering form sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid and other fumes pollutants released from Mathura Refinary.
  • Acid rain cause extensive damage to building , statues , bridge, and, structural material of marble, lime stone, etc.

Causes Of Acid Rain

  1. Burning coal, oil and natural gas, in power station makes electricity, giving off sulphur dioxide gas. ..
  2. Burning petrol and oil vehicle engines gives off nitrogen oxides as gases. …
  3. These gases mix with water vapor and rainwater in the atmosphere producing weak solution of sulfuric acid and nitric acid – which fall as acid rain. ..
  4. Natural sources such as erupting volcanoes and lighting produce sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxued which cause to the formation of acid rain.

Effects on living

On human health.

  • The sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide gases causes respiratory diseases astana, chronic bronchitis, etc.
  • Small particles have difficulty breathing for humans and animals and can cause permanent lung damage.
  • Acid rain increase the acidity of lakes and rivers, which directly effects the aquatic ecosystem.

On trees and soil
  • Acid rain dissolves all the nutrients and the useful minerals for the tree grow.
  • Weakens the process of photosynthesis.
  • According to modern researches, Acid rain leaches potassium, calcium, magnesium, etc.
  • Essential elements form the top of soil and when soil is contaminated, cereal (arable) production crops.
  • Activate aluminum from the soil because of acidity, which die fish and water.
  • Drinking water is contaminated.

Disadvantages of acid rain
  1. Acid rain affects the fresh water ponds as well as lakes and destroys the aquatic life as some species of fishes are rare and may be extinct.
  2. Acid rain affect the trees particularly those that are high altitude.
  3. Acid rain damage historical monuments and buildings.
  4. soil can be affected and can lead to deaths of good microbes.

Solution of acid rain

  • Fit scrubbers into facotry’s chimney, which are chemical filters that remove impurities such as sulphur from smoke.
  • Care can be fitted with special converters which remove dangerous chemical.
  • Government need to spend more money on pollution control.

Conclusion: To conclude, acid rain is very important issue that has bad effects in the environment.
Many health problems will be avoided if acid rainfall due to rain. We can help stop this acid rain in a very simple way, which does not pollute the air.

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Ozone layer depletion consequences :

Hi friends today we are going to discuss about depletion of the ozone layer.

The key is that the ozone molecule is nothing more than an oxygen molecule that has received an extra oxygen atom through an electrically high voltage. The ozone layer is the most commonly known example, in which ozone is produced by ultraviolet rays (UV) received from the sun. …
Ozone depletion, the release of chemical compounds from gaseous chlorine or bromine-containing industries, or other human activities, gradually depletes the Earth’s ozone layer in the upper atmosphere. Thinning is most common in the polar regions, especially in Antarctica.

What is ozone?

  • O3
  • A gas composed of three atoms of oxygen.
  • Bluish gas that is harmful to breathe.
  • About 90% of the Earth’s ozone is in the stratosphere and is referred to as the ozone layer.
  • Ozone absorb a band of ultraviolet radiation called UVB.

Formation of Ozone Layer

O2+ sunlight =O+O

Ozone (O3)
Oxygen molecules are formed when UV collides with the stratosphere. Oxygen molecules merge with oxygen.
O2 = O + O
Atomic oxygen quickly combine with other oxygen molecule to form ozone

Ozone depletion

Ozone layer depletion consequences
  • Ozone depletion is the depletion of the ozone layer in the stratosphere.
  • Unlike pollution, which has many types and causes, ozone depletion has been a major human activity.
  • Uses insulating items such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) such as insulating foam, solvents, soaps, air conditioners, refrigerators and take-away containers.
  • Depletion being when CFC’s get into the stratosphere .
  • Ulta violet radiation from the sun breaks up these CFC’s.

The breaking up action releases chlorine atoms.

Atoms of chlorine is react with ozone and start a chemical cycle that destroys the good ozone in that area.
One Cholrine atom can break apart more than 100.000 ozone molecules.

Causes of ozone depletion

Man made causes

  1. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s)
  2. Halons
  3. Methyl Chloroform
  4. Hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCS )
  5. Natural causes

Impacts of Ozone depletion
Harm to human health

  • More skin cancer, sunburns and premature aging of the skin.
  • More characters, blindness and other eye diseases.
  • Adverse impact on Agriculture.
  • UV radiation damages plant growth, especially in plants.
  • Major crop species are primarily vulnerable to increase, UV resulting in reduced growth, photosynthesis and flowring.

Effects on plant

Ozone layer depletion consequences

Physiological and development processes of plans are affected by UVB radiation, even by the amount of UVB in present day sunlight.

Effects on animal

In domestic animals, UV overexposure many cause eye and skin cancers. Marine species (e.g., young fish, prawns, and larvae) have been threatened in recent years by increased UV radiation under the Antarctic ozone.

Effects on material

Wood, plastic, rubber, fabrics and many conversations materials are degrated by UV radiation.
The economic impact of replacing and /or protecting.
material could be significant.

What is the state of the ozone layer?

  • Since the inception of the Montreal Protocol, European consumption (EEA-28 in 1986) has dropped to zero ozone-depleting potential (ODP) in 2002, where it still stands.
  • The depletion of the ozone layer is a profound crisis caused by UV-B radiation reaching the earth’s surface, affecting humans and all living things.
  • This basic chain of ozone depletion has anthropogenic action, and global climate change has occurred in this century.

Importance of ozone layer

  • Ozone is concentrated in the lower stratosphere between 15 and 30 km above the earth surface -the so called Ozen layer.
  • Ozone can be produce by numerous chemical reaction, but the main mechanism in the atmosphere for it’s production and removal in absorption of ultra violet radiat energy from the sun.
  • The maintenance of enough stratosphere Ozen the absorb harmful Ulta violet sunlight is therefore vitally important to all life forms on earth.

Measures to prevent the ozone depletion

Ozone layer depletion consequences
  • Limit private vehicle driving
  • Use eco-friendly household cleaning products
  • Avoid using pesticides
  • Developing stringent regulations for roket lunches
  • Banning the use of dangerous nitrous oxide.

Conclusion and suggestions of ozone layer depletion:


  • The depletion of the ozone layer is a profound crisis caused by UV-B radiation reaching the earth’s surface, affecting humans and all living things.
  • This basic chain of ozone depletion has anthropogenic action, and global climate change has occurred in this century.
  • This leads to numerous health problems such as heat related problems, skin cancer and other environmental disturbances affecting biological life.
  • Therefore, everyone should be well aware of the harmful effects of ozone depleting agents such as CFCs, plastics, fossil fuels, etc. and reduce and avoid using them.
  • We must all pledge to save nature and keep everyone alive.


  1. Avoid using refrigerators or air conditioners that run using CFC refrigerants.
  2. Maintain devices using CFCs to prevent leakages.
  3. Avoid aerosol products with CFC.
  4. Avoid fossil fuels and use renewable fuel.
  5. Use solar energy.

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Digital electronics and it’s application

Hi friends today we are going to discuss about new things “Digital Electronics And it’s application “

What is Digital Electronics ???

Digital electronics or digital (electronic) circuit are electronics that handel digital signals. (Discrete bands of analog levels) rather than by continuous ranges as used in analog electronics.
It is based upon the digital design methodologies and consist of digital circuits, IC’s and logic gates.
We are study the digital electronics and it’s application

Digital electronics

Digital Electronics Quick History.

  • Before to digital technology, electronic transmission was limited to analog technology, which conveys electronic signals of varying frequency or amplitude.
  • In the 1930′ s the prototypes of the computer were constructed from mechanical switches (vacuum tubes)
  • The next stage in the 1940’s was the use of electronic
  • diodes, and while these were better but they were unreliable.
  • The next stage was the result of the development in 1947 of the transistors which was much smaller, faster and cooler.
  • Simple transistors were replaced by electronic circuits. (ICs) and that got smaller and smaller and finally deposited on silicone to be put into a “chip “.

Analog system

The team ” analogue ” describes the proportional relationship between a signal and a voltage or current that represents the signal. The world analogue is derived from the Greek word analogue meaning “proportional ” .

Advantages of ICs
  • Smaller components
  • Less volume and weight of the equipment
  • Reduction of power consumption
  • Cost reduction
  • More reliable

Analog VS Digital Systems:

  • Analog computers only work with analog quantities of continuous numerical data
  • Digital computers can process both non – numerical and numerical data.

Digital electronics and it’s application

  • Data Transmission using Digital systems
  • The digital system spend the data in the form of packages of digital codes, thus we can encode and decode them in various forms and codes.
  • Data encryption is also possible in the digital system.
  • Hence the data transmission is more secure, and can be manipulate in many formats ! . Digital systems are much advantages in communications.

Digital electronics safe box
  • The Electronic Digital Safe is perfect for storing your jewelry, valuables and confidential paperwork safely.
  • It’s easy to set up electronic code with floor or wall mounting.
  • There is also a digital lock, incorrect password alarm and two backup keys.
  • There is a cash box with tray to keep your valuable and coins in and a carrying handle for your .


A resistor is made out of multiple flip flops connected to each other used to store multiple bits of data. If we have ‘ n’ flip flops, we can store ‘N’Djamena bits of data.

Shift resister

A shift resistor is a sequential circuit which stores the data and shifts it towards the outputs on every clock cycle.


The microprocessor is also called as logic chip. The microprocessor has all, or most, central processing unit (CPU) functions, and is the “engine” that becomes dynamic when you turn on the computer.

Future Scoops & Possibilities Of Digital Electronics :

Digital electronics
  • It uses digital electronics VLSL technology, which has reduced the size and area of ​​circuit boards and increased the accuracy and efficiency of the system.
  • Moreover digital systems have the advantage of data encryption for the communication purpose.
  • The data transmission is safe and secure.
  • Digital electronics and it’s application More useful in future.

Advantages of Digital Electronics

  • Computer control digital systems can be controlled by software, allowing new functions to be added without changing hardware.
  • Digital systems are easier to store information than analog.
  • The noise-immunity of digital systems permits data to be stored and retrieved without noise.
  • In a digital system are easier to design and more precise representation of a signal can be obtained by using more binary to represent it.
  • More digital circuitry can be fabricated on IC chips.
  • Error management method can be inserted into the single path.
  • To detect errors, and then either correct the errors, or at least ask for a new copy of the data.

Disadvantages of Digital Electronics

  • Conversion to digital format and re-conversation to analog format is needed, which always include the lost of information.
  • In same cases, digital circuits use more energy than analog circuits and produce more heat and need heat sinks.
  • Digital circuits are sometimes more experience, especially in small quantities.

All these factors clearly shows that the digital electronics stream has wide future scope in the modern era!

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Mussels cells in human body : Types of muscle tissue

Hii friends.. Today we are going to discuss about muscles in human body.

What are muscles?
The muscle is a soft tissue . Muscle cells in human body contain protein filaments actin and myosin. That slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. Muscle cells in human body for maintaining and changing posture, locomotion.. The Muscles function to produce force and motion . Mussels cells in human body
: Types of muscle tissue skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscles.

What do you mean by muscular system?

In the body of human muscular system is an organ system . Mussels cells in human body : Types of muscle tissue skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscles.

  • It is an permits movement of the body, maintains posture and circulates blood throughout the body, together with the skeletal system, it forms the musculoskeletal system, which is responsible for movement of the human body.
  • In which in vertebrates are controlled through the nervous system although some muscles can be completely autonomous.

What is the function of Muscle cells in human body?

  • The muscular system is a composed of specialized cells called muscle fibers.
  • Their predominant function is contractibility.
  • In the body of human muscular system is an organ system are attached to the bones or internal organs and blood vessels, are responsible for movement.

Mussels cells in human body : Types of muscle tissue

Mussels cells  in human body : Types of muscle tissue
  1. Cardiac Muscle
  2. Smooth Muscle
  3. Skeletal Muscle

1) Cardiac muscle

Cardiac muscle cell are found in the myocardium as well as is responsible for the contraction of the heart satellite cells.


  • Cardiac muscle tissue are found in the heart, as well as are specialized to pump blood powerfully and efficiently throughout our entire lifetime.
  • characteristics of cardiac muscle tissue cells
  • They are involuntary and intrinsically controlled, striated, branched, and single nucleated.
  • Function

Cardiac Function

  • The Cardiac muscle cells works to keep your heart pumping through involuntary movements.
  • It is one feature that differentiates it from skeletal muscle tissue, which you can control.
  • It does this through specialized cells called pacemaker cells.
  • These control the contractions of your heart.

Tissue location
Cardiac muscle cells are located in the
1) walls of the heart
2) appear striated
3)under involuntary control. Smooth muscle fibers are located in walls of hollow visceral organs, except the heart, appear spindle-shaped, and are also under involuntary control.

2) Smooth muscle cells

Smooth muscle cells are responsible for involuntary contractions

Tissue Location

Smooth muscle are found in the walls of blood vessels and hollow organs such as the gastrointestinal tract, uterus , and bladder. They are also present in the eye also contract changing the shape of the lens causing the eye to focus.

Tissues Function

Smooth muscle is also responsible for waves of contraction throughout the digestive system, forcing food to move through the body (peristalsis).

3) Skeletal muscle cells

The skeletal muscles are long,cylindrical, multi-nucleated and striated. Each nucleus regulates the metabolic requirements of the sarcoplasm around it. Skeletal muscle cells have high energy requirements, so they contain many mitochondria in order to generate sufficient ATP. In which the skeletal muscles sarcoplasm consists of myofibrils, which in turn are made up of thick and thin myofilaments.

Tissues Function

These cells form the muscle that we use to move as well as produce contraction due to the sliding of myosin heads over the actin filaments. This process is regulated by factor functions.

Mussels cells in human body : Types of muscle tissue: Are a unique structure and a specific role.

  • Skeletal muscle moves bones and other structures.
  • Cardiac muscle contracts the heart to pump blood.
  • Smooth muscle tissues are that forms organs like the stomach as well as bladder changes shape to facilitate bodily functions.


  • Skeletal muscle is voluntary and striated.
  • cardiac muscle is involuntary and straited.
  • smooth muscle is involuntary and non-striated.

Shapes of muscle

  • Circular
  • Convergent
  • Parallel
  • Pennate
  • Fusiform

What are the roles of Muscle cells in human body

  • Muscles function to produce force and motion.
  • Muscles are primarily responsible for maintaining and changing posture, locomotion,
  • And movement of internal organs, such as the contraction of the heart as well as the movement of food through the digestive system via peristalsis.

Major properties of the muscular system.

1) Excitable or Irritable.
2) Contractible.
3) Extensible.
4) Elasticity.
5) Adaptability.

…………We have learned that our bodies are made of 3 different muscles – cardiac, smooth, and skeletal. All three different muscles have the same job – to contract and relax

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Human Liver Autonomy

Hii friends, Today we are going to discuss about autonomy of human liver


The liver is a essential organ In the human body. In the liver multiple functions. It is makes a many of the chemicals required by the body to function normally, it breaks down and detoxifies substances in the body, and it is also acts as a storage unit in the body.

It has many functions in the body

1)Including making proteins and 2)Blood clotting factor 3)Manufacturing triglycerides 4)Cholesterol 5)Glycogen synthesis 6)Bile production

Structure of liver
  • In the human body the largest internal organ is liver and it is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and is protected by the lower right ribs.
  • It is also extends across the midline toward the left upper quadrant of the abdomen.
  • The liver is enlarged, it will grow further across the upper abdomen and down towards the navel (umbilicus).

The liver is a divided into two lobes

It has a rich blood supply obtained from two sources;
1) 1st lobe is the portal vein . It delivers blood from the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, intestine, colon) and spleen, and
2) The hepatic artery supplies blood from the heart.

Why is the liver so important?
  • The liver is the one of the largest organs in the body.
  • It has many important metabolic functions.
  • It is converts the nutrients in our diets into substances that the body can use, stores these substances, and supplies cells with them when needed.

In the liver’s main function

Is to filter the blood coming from the digestive tract, before passing it to the rest of the body. The liver is also detoxifies chemicals & metabolizes drugs.

The primary functions of the liver are:

  • Bile production and excretion.
  • Excretion of bilirubin, cholesterol,hormones and drugs.
  • Metabolism of fats,proteins and carbohydrates.
  • Enzyme activation.
  • Storage of glycogen, vitamins, and minerals. synthesis of plasma proteins, such as albumin, and clotting factors.

Some interesting facts about the liver

The liver consists of 96% water. (The water is inside the cells and in blood.)

Ways to a Healthy Liver

  • Maintain a healthy weight. …
  • Eat a balanced diet. …
  • Exercise regularly. …
  • Avoid toxins. …
  • Use alcohol responsibly. …
  • Avoid the use of illicit drugs. …
  • Avoid contaminated needles…
  • Get medical care if you’re exposed to blood…

Stages of liver failure

1)Inflammation. In this early stage, the liver is enlarged or inflamed.
2)Fibrosis. Scar tissue begins to replace healthy tissue in the inflamed liver.
3)Cirrhosis. Severe scarring has built up, making it difficult for the liver to function properly.
End-stage liver disease (ESLD). …
Liver cancer

Different Disease Processes. Including Infections
  • Hepatitis
  • Cirrhosis (scarring)
  • Cancers
  • Damage by medications or toxins.

Symptoms of liver

  • Disease can Include
  • Jaundice Abdominal pain
  • Swelling
  • Confusion
  • Bleeding
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss

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Human Spinal Cord

Hi friends, Today we are going to discuss about Spinal Cord in human body.

Spinal cord

  • The spinal cord is a support system of the body
  • In human body the spinal cord is a long cylinder of nerves that runs from the base of your brain through the vertebral canal through the backbone.
  • It is a part of the central nervous system (CNS) along with the brain.
  • It is a divided into different segments.
  • In that each segment contains a pair roots made out of nerve fibres. The spinal cord is (in yellow) connects the brain to nerves throughout the body.

Importance spinal cord

  • Spinal Cord is important part in body because without a spinal cord your brain and your body couldn’t communicate with each other.
  • The spinal cord is the pathway for impulses from the brain to the body and from the body to the brain, and .
  • These impulses are the different signals our brain sends and receives from our bodies.

Physiology of the spinal cord

  • what makes it work. The spinal column consists of the bones that contain and protect the spinal cord.
  • The bones are of the spinal column or vertebrae help hold us up and together.
  • The spinal cord extends from the brain.

What is the structure of spinal cord?

The structure of spinal cord is a cylindrical structure of nervous tissue composed of white and gray matter, is uniformly organized and is divided into four regions.

  • Cervical (C)
  • Thoracic (T)
  • Lumbar (L)
  • Sacral (S)

1) Cervical
  • In the spinal cord the cervical portion of the spine comprises the top portion of the spinal cord, comprising seven vertebrae (C1 – C7) in the neck.
  • They closer to the brain and affecting a larger portion of the body, cervical spinal cord injuries are typically the most severe variety of spinal cord injury.

2) Thoracic
  • Thoracic spin – the main function of the thoracic spine is to hold the rib cage and protect the heart and lungs.
  • The T1 to T12 are twelve thoracic vertebrae numbered T1 to T12.
  • The motion of range in the thoracic spine is limited.

3) Lumbar
  • The Lumbar spine – In that the main function of the lumbar spine is to bear the weight of the body.
  • LA to L5 are the five lumbar vertebrae are numbered.
  • These vertebrae are larger in size to absorb the stress of lifting and carrying heavy objects.

4) Sacral
  • The sacral spine (sacrum) is the located below the lumbar spine and above the tailbone, which is known as the coccyx.
  • 5 bones that are fused together make up the triangle-shaped sacrum, and these bones are numbered S-1 to S-5.

Functions Of Spine

  • The spine protect the spinal cord, nerve roots and several of the body’s internal organs.
  • The spine provide structural support and balance to maintain an upright posture.
  • Enable flexible motion.

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Hi friends,

Today we are going to discuss about information of capacitor

A capacitor is a electrical device that is stores electrical energy in an electric field. Capacitors are the passive electronic components with two terminals. The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance.

What is a capacitor used for?

It is used to store energy electrostatically in an electric field.k
Capacitors are widely used in electronic devices to maintain power supply while batteries are being changed.

In electronic circuits Capacitors are widely used to perform variety of tasks, such as

  • Smoothing
  • Filtering,
  • Bypassing

In the capacitors contain at least two electrical conductors often in the form of metallic plates or surfaces separated by a dielectric medium. In which a conductor may be a foil, thin film, sintered bead of metal, or an electrolyte.
In that the nonconducting dielectric include glass, ceramic, plastic film, paper, mica, air, and oxide layers.That is increase the capacitor’s charge capacity.

A Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. Unlike a resistors,an ideal capacitor does not dissipate energy, although real-life capacitors do dissipate a small amount (see Non-ideal behavior).
When across the terminals of a capacitor the electric potential, a voltage, is applied to ,

For example, when a capacitor is connected across a battery, an electric field develops across the causing dielectric net positive charge to collect on one plate and net negative charge to collect on the other plate. No of current actually flows through the dielectric. When there is a flow of charge through the source circuit. In that condition is maintained Sufficiently long, the current through the source circuit ceases.


  • It can charge and accumulate energy quickly
  • It can deliver the stored energy quickly
  • It is losses are small compared to other storage medium
  • It is long service life and low (or no) maintenance


  • It is low energy capacity compared to batteries
  • It is limited energy storage per dollar cost
  • It is stored energy will eventually deplete due to internal losses


  • Power conditioning,
  • Signal coupling or decoupling
  • Electronic noise filtering
  • Remote sensing

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Composition of Blood

Hii Friends, Today we are going to discuss about Composition of Blood.

Blood – Blood is a main circulating fuild in the human body. Study of blood is called Hematology. The system in which blood is circulated throughout the body is called circulating system.

  • The main circulating, bright red, slightly alkaline fuild in the human body .
  • Study of blood is called haematology.
  • Blood is a fuild connective tissue derived from mesoderm. It has pH about 7.4.
  • There are about 5 litters of blood in the body which is about 8 %of the total body weight.

Composition of blood

There are two main components of blood, viz.,

  • Plasma (55%)
  • Blood corpuscles (45%)

  • Plasma is a straw coloured fuild part of blood, slightly alkaline, viscous fuild consisting of 90 – 92 % water and 8-10% of solutes.
  • Solutes are 7% proteins (serum,albumin,serum globulin, heparin, fibrinogen and prothrombin).
  • Other solutes are nutrients (glucose, amino acids, fatty acids and glycerol.)
  • Nitrogenous wastes such as urea, uric acid, ammonia and creatinine.
  • Gases like oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
  • Regulatory substance like enzymes and hormones.
  • Inorganic substances like bicarbonates ,chlorides, phosphates and sulphates of sodium potassium, calcium, magnesium, etc.

Blood corpuscles

Blood corpuscles are solid part of blood. They are of three types, viz. Erythrocytes (RBCs), leucocytes (WBCs) and thrombocytes (platalets) .

Erythrocytes or RBCs
  • Circular, bioconcave, enclueated cells of about 7micrometer in diameter and 2.5micrometer in thickness.
  • RBC count is about 5.1 to 5.8 million RBCs in male and 4.3 to 5.2 million in females. The average life span of RBC is about 120 days.
  • Erythropoiesis is formation of RBCs. It occurs in liver and spleen in foetus and in red bone marrow in adults.
  • The old RBCs are destroyed in liver and spleen.
  • Polycythemia is increase while erythrocytopenia is decreases in number of RBCs.
  • RBCs contain respiratory pigment called haemoglobin which helps in transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  • The normal haemoglobin content in adult male is 13-18 mg/100 ml of blood and 11.5-16.5mg/100 ml of blood in adult female.
  • Less amount of haemoglobin leads to anaemia.

Leucocytes or WBCs
  • Leucocytes are colourless, nucleated, amoeboid and phagocytic cells.
  • They show diapedesis, I.e. squeezing out of blood capillaries by amoeboid movement.
  • The size is about 8 to 15 umicrometer.
  • Total WBC count is 5000 to 9000 WBCs /cu my of blood.
  • The average life span of WBCs is about 3 to 4 days.
  • Leucopoiesis or formation of WBCs. It occurs in red bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, tonsil thymus and payers patches.
  • Leukemia or blood cancer is a pathological increase in no of WBCs.
  • Leucocytes are of two types, viz., granulocytes and agranulocyctes.

Thrombocytes or platalets
  • Thrombocytes are smallest, nonnucleated, round and biconvex. They are of about 2.5 to 5 micro m in diameter.
  • Their life span is about 5 to 10 days.
  • Megakaryocytes of bone marrow from thrombocytes.
  • Thrombopoiesis is the formation of platelets.
  • Thrombocytosis is the increase while thrombocytopenia is the decrease in platalets count.
  • Thrombocytes help in coagulation of blood by releasing thromboplastine.

So guys, I hope you have understood the concept of composition of blood through this information. Share this information friends and family.

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